5 Ways to Conserve the Biodiversity

Conservation of the biodiversity is they key to prevent Endangered status and Extinction of animals.
                         Photo Credit: scientifist.com

When life and existence is continually threatened , the inter depenendency range drifts away from the natural balance made by mother nature. The biodiversity is connected in a unique circle of life where all lives including the plants interact together consciously and unconsciously to hold life in it's natural and neautral balance. Over the years the population of plants and , animals has witnessed a strong downtrend worldwide, everyday animals draws close to Extinction as a result of the activities of human; in the form of technoligical innovation, driving animals away from their natural habitat, deforestation and  poaching, then weather; in the form of climate change which has affected animals like the walrus and polar bears including aquatic live, predation e.t.c. Conserving the biodiversity is undoubtedly a strong necessity that should be upheld in a bid to save the ecosystem.

1. Government Policy

The Dutch government has made efforts to preserve the biodiversity and the ecosystem in the Netherlands. The natural environment is protected by rules, laws and regulations, regulating at the national and international level in the Netherlands. The national ecological network (NEN) and the Natura 2000 are efforts by the Dutch government through it's policy to help preserve the ecosystem. The government of the UK is not left out on the bid to save the biodiversity, with it's 2010-2015 policies. These government policies has strengthened the Biodiversity and the ecosystem, yet more policies needs to be made by governments around the world because the biodiversity and all it's element are endemic to different parts of the world, some of which are at the verge of Extinction.

2. Habitat Restoration

Habitat loss has been the major cause of Extinction of a good number of animals and species. The habitat loss is driven by urbanization, industrialization and technology. The panda has faced a strong population downtrend and habitat loss is a major contributing factor. Habit Restoration is a positive step towards ensuring the continuity of life in the Biodiversity.

3. Breeding

Breeding animals in captivity, endangered animals,  in a controlled environment and healthy welfare will help to boost the population of an already Endangered animal specie, if the breeding is carried out on a large scale.

4. Climate Change

Climate change along with global warming resulting from the effects of the green house gases has caused an unusual climatic change which now affects the entire biodiversity. It has been proven that climatic change has put the walrus population on a thin ice. The world at large needs to source for an alternative source of fuel that emits little or no harmful gas into the atmosphere.

5. Education

Education is a mighty weapon thats combats issues right from the cognitive out to it's implementation. More Educative platforms like the SWIFT Biodiversity education project needs to be set up to educate individuals, organization and groups on how to promote the continued conservation of the Biodiversity which is seeing a dowtrend in the population of a good number of it's animals and plants.

What is the difference between the Crocodile, Alligator and Gharial?

Crocodile are reptiles endemic to the tropics of Australia, America, Africa and Asia.
Photo Credit: smrtenglish.com
The word “crocodile” is sometimes used to include the extent family of the order crocodilian, which includes the gharial, the false gharia, the alligator and caimans.  Although, morphological, they all look quite alike but with clear distinctive features, they belong to separate subfamily. The most obvious external differences between crocodile alligator are visible in the head, with crocodiles having narrower and longer heads, with a more V-shaped than a U-shaped snout compared to alligators and caimans. Another obvious trait is that the upper and lower jaws of the crocodiles are the same width, and the teeth in the lower jaw fall along the edge or outside the upper jaw when the mouth is closed; therefore, all teeth are visible, unlike an alligator, which possesses in the upper jaw small depressions into which the lower teeth fit. Today will be about the subfamily of the true crocodile or the crocodylinae.

Crocodile are reptiles endemic to the tropics of Australia, America, Africa and Asia.
Photo Credit: livescience.com

Crocodile are endemic to the tropics of Australia; crocodile australia, America; crocodile america, Africa; crocodile africa and Asia; Crocodile asia. They have been known to live in fresh waters, saltwater and brackish water. Crocodiles are Carnivorous animals feeding mostly on vertebrate preys  like mammals, fish, birds and reptile.  

Crocodile are reptiles endemic to the tropics of Australia, America, Africa and Asia.
Photo Credit: Oceana.org

Crocodile are known for their enormous size; a larger species can be over 17 ft long and weigh over 900 kg. The largest crocodile ever held in captivity in the world is an estuarine–Siamese hybrid named "Yai", this animal measures 20 ft in length and weighs 1,114 kg. The longest crocodile ever captured alive is "Lolong", which was measured to be 20.2 ft and weighed at 1,075 kg by a National Geographic team in Agusan del Sur Province, Philippines.

Crocodile are reptiles endemic to the tropics of Australia, America, Africa and Asia.
Photo Credit: factslegend.org
Crocodile lay eggs in nest or mould made in sand. Mating usually takes place in the water.  Crocodile embryos do not have sex chromosomes, and unlike humans, sex is not determined genetically. Sex is determined by temperature, where at 30 °C or less most hatchlings are females and at 31 °C, offspring are of both sexes. A temperature of 32 to 33 °C gives mostly males whereas above 33 °C in some species continues to give males, but in other species resulting in females, which are sometimes called high-temperature females. Temperature also affects growth and survival rate of the young, which may explain the sexual dimorphism in crocodiles. The average incubation period is around 80 days, and also is dependent on temperature and species that usually ranges from 65 to 95 days.

Research Shows Frog and Toad Populations Declining at an Alarming Rate

Research Shows Frog and Toad Populations Declining at an Alarming Rate
Photo Credit: Guardian.ng

Recent studies have shown that the number of toads and frogs across the country have been in decline at an alarming rate. The RSPB’s annual Big Garden Birdwatch, which also lets participants submit sightings of non-bird garden visitors has shown that since 2014 toad sightings have dropped 17% and frog sightings by a third. This decline has been reflected in other surveys, with data from Froglife’s ‘Toads on Roads’ scheme finding that toad sightings specifically have dropped by two-thirds over the past thirty years. It is worth remembering that this data primarily concerns sightings of frogs and roads in urbanized areas; experts warn that in the countryside numbers could potentially have decreased in the hundreds of thousands.

Research Shows Frog and Toad Populations Declining at an Alarming Rate
Photo Credit: thehsi.org

According to the ‘Toads on Roads’ data, areas in the South-East of England have seen the largest and most consistent decline; whilst numbers in Wales, South-West and West England have declined they have stayed at a consistent level for the past ten years. However, it is not just this country where we are seeing a rapid decline of both frogs and toads; Switzerland and the USA have also reported a decrease in population numbers. The team’s results, published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE can be found here: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161943

The evidence is undeniable, but what are the causes and what can be done to prevent this decline any further? Considering that toads in particular are usually very adaptive this continuous decline has experts worried. Unfortunately there is no clear evidence which allows for the direct identification of any specific issue or element which may be contributing to this decline. Among those that have been suggested, urbanization, loss of ponds and even changes to farming practices could be aggravating matters. Climate change is also believed to be having an impact as warmer winters have a negative impact on hibernating toads. Disease could also play a factor; around 2010 an outbreak of the Ranavirus disease caused large numbers of frogs to die across the country.
Research Shows Frog and Toad Populations Declining at an Alarming Rate
Photo Credit: livescience.com

The RSPB are encouraging people to install ponds in their gardens to help try and combat this decline and ensure that frogs and toads have access to environments that support their way of life.  Whilst for a lot of people a garden is a luxury, let alone a garden big enough to support a pond or the money to build and maintain a pond, even just a washing up bowl of water in the garden will do. As long as there is some sort of access for the creatures (a ‘platform’ of sorts – although it is recommended to try and avoid stone, as this can get extremely hot in high temperatures) then it could make a difference. If you can place it by long grass, a pile of logs or even an upside down plant pot then this could additionally serve as a place for toads to hibernate during the winter, and provide additional shade in the summer.

Frogs and toads eat insects, spiders, and other garden pests and are an important part of our local ecosystem. Whilst conservation efforts have in the past been more commonly focused on rare animals, the declines seen in many species that were once considered abundant and ‘safe’ – frogs and toads being such examples – have meant that researchers are now paying more attention to more traditional British wildlife. Long term plans to monitor their numbers as well as research into the causes of these declines and possible solutions are gaining more traction in the hope that action can be taken before it’s too late.

Article First Published in wildlifearticles.co.uk by Jessica Howard