Napoleon wrasse


About the humphead wrasse
The humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) is a species of wrasse mainly found on coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific region. It is also known as the Māori wrasse, Napoleon wrasse, Napoleon fish.

Description
The humphead wrasse is the largest living member of the family Labridae. Males are typically larger than females and are capable of reaching lengths of up to 2 meters from tip to tail and weighing up to 180 kg, but the average length is generally a little less than 1 meter. Females rarely grow larger than one meter in length. This species of fish can be easily identified by its large size, thick lips, two black lines behind its eyes, and the hump that appears on the forehead of larger adults. The color of the humphead wrasse can vary between a dull blue-green to more vibrant shades of green and purplish-blue. This particular reef fish prefers to live singly but adults are occasionally observed moving in small groups.

Habitat
The humphead wrasses can be located with in the east coast of Africa and Red Sea, as well as in the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Juvenile and adult humphead wrasses are found in different ranges. Juveniles are usually found in shallow, sandy ranges that are bordering coral reef waters, while adults are mostly found in offshore and deeper areas of the coral reefs, typically in outer-reef slopes and channels, but can also be found in lagoons. Humphead wrasses are found in small groups or larger combinations within their habitat.

Reproduction
The humphead wrasse is long-lived, but has a very slow breeding rate. Individuals become sexually mature at four to six years, and females are known to live for around 50 years, whereas males live a slightly shorter 45 years. Humphead wrasses are protogynous hermaphrodites, with some members of the population becoming male at about 9 years old. The factors that control the timing of sex change are not yet known. Adults move to the down-current end of the reef and form local spawning aggregations (they concentrate to spawn) at certain times of the year. Humphead wrasses likely do not travel very far for their spawning aggregations. The humphead wrasse pelagic eggs and larvae ultimately settle on or near coral reef habitats. Eggs are 0.65 mm in diameter and spherical, with no pigment

Conservation
The fish is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red list

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