Government policies and programs on Biodiversity


government policies and programs on biodiversity
Photo Credit: wallpapers13.com


In 2001, the Indian government, under the ministry of environment, forest and climate change, enacted the national biodiversity act and notified Biological Diversity Rules in 2004, to give effect to the provisions of this Convention In 2003.

The national biodiversity authority, NBA was then set up in 2004. The vision of NBA is the conservation and sustainable use of India’s rich biodiversity and associated knowledge with people’s participation, ensuring the process of benefit sharing for well being of present and future generations. The mission of NBA is to ensure effective implementation of Biological Diversity Act, 2002 and the Biological Diversity Rules 2004 for conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of utilization of genetic resources.  The Indian government has also made several acts and laws to conserve the biodiversity such the fisheries Act, 1897, Destructive Insects and Pests Act, 1914, The Indian Forest Act 1927 e.t.c


The government of the Netherlands has made several policies on the conservation of the biodiversity which includes:

Conserving and strengthening Dutch nature

The Dutch government wants to preserve and strengthen the Netherlands’ natural environment and biodiversity. Biological diversity refers to the wide variety of plants, animals and other living things, and to the ecosystems that they form. An ecosystem is made up of all living things in an area, and the interactions between them.

Countryside stewardship schemes

In the Netherlands, much of the farmland and countryside has great natural or landscape value. The provincial authorities want to consolidate these natural values. Farmers, nature organizations and other private landowners can get grants to manage the land in a nature-friendly way.

Conservation of major aquatic ecosystems
The Netherlands has several major aquatic ecosystems: the Waddenzee, the Southwestern Delta region, the IJsselmeer region, the North Sea, the coast and the major rivers. The government wants to safeguard the future of these aquatic ecosystems. It has published an exploratory policy paper, with others, setting out a long-term vision on aquatic conservation with a view to  2050-2100.

Green growth

The government is keen to reduce our environmental burden and our dependence on fossil fuels, while at the same time making the Netherlands more competitive. That’s why the government promotes ‘green growth’ – economic growth that does not have a negative impact on the environment. New technologies play a key role in driving green growth.

International protection of endangered species
International agreements on curbing trade in endangered plant and animal species are laid down in CITES. The Netherlands is a signatory to this convention.



The united kingdom is not loosing weight on the biodiversity issue as they have made several legislative efforts and policies to see the biodiversity survive.

The government of the united kingdom has put forward a strategy, Biodiversity 2020. It describes how they will stop the decline of biodiversity in England, in line with the global and EU commitments. It takes into account ‘Making space for nature’ (2010), a major review of England’s wildlife sites and ecological networks.

Bills and legislation passed by the united kingdom

The Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006 requires all public bodies to consider biodiversity conservation when carrying out their functions.

The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) sets out planning policies which local planning authorities should have regard to on biodiversity matters.


The EU Wildlife Trade Regulations relate to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). The UK Control of Trade in Endangered Species (Enforcement) Regulations (COTES) creates offences in relation to the EU regulations.



USAID aims to shape a future in which both people and biodiversity thrive via improvements in economic prosperity, social equity and environmental stewardship.

The Biodiversity Policy represents the strengthened commitment to conserve biodiversity through:
1. Strategic actions to conserve the world’s most important biodiversity, such as stamping out global wildlife trafficking.

2. A new focus on integrating biodiversity and other development sectors for improved  outcomes. The Policy recognizes that biodiversity loss can be driven by unsustainable development, that there are trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and development goals that must be understood and managed, and that biodiversity conservation itself can be a critical tool for achieving sustainable development.

5 Ways to Conserve the Biodiversity

Conservation of the biodiversity is they key to prevent Endangered status and Extinction of animals.
                         Photo Credit: scientifist.com

When life and existence is continually threatened , the inter depenendency range drifts away from the natural balance made by mother nature. The biodiversity is connected in a unique circle of life where all lives including the plants interact together consciously and unconsciously to hold life in it's natural and neautral balance. Over the years the population of plants and , animals has witnessed a strong downtrend worldwide, everyday animals draws close to Extinction as a result of the activities of human; in the form of technoligical innovation, driving animals away from their natural habitat, deforestation and  poaching, then weather; in the form of climate change which has affected animals like the walrus and polar bears including aquatic live, predation e.t.c. Conserving the biodiversity is undoubtedly a strong necessity that should be upheld in a bid to save the ecosystem.

1. Government Policy

The Dutch government has made efforts to preserve the biodiversity and the ecosystem in the Netherlands. The natural environment is protected by rules, laws and regulations, regulating at the national and international level in the Netherlands. The national ecological network (NEN) and the Natura 2000 are efforts by the Dutch government through it's policy to help preserve the ecosystem. The government of the UK is not left out on the bid to save the biodiversity, with it's 2010-2015 policies. These government policies has strengthened the Biodiversity and the ecosystem, yet more policies needs to be made by governments around the world because the biodiversity and all it's element are endemic to different parts of the world, some of which are at the verge of Extinction.

2. Habitat Restoration

Habitat loss has been the major cause of Extinction of a good number of animals and species. The habitat loss is driven by urbanization, industrialization and technology. The panda has faced a strong population downtrend and habitat loss is a major contributing factor. Habit Restoration is a positive step towards ensuring the continuity of life in the Biodiversity.

3. Breeding

Breeding animals in captivity, endangered animals,  in a controlled environment and healthy welfare will help to boost the population of an already Endangered animal specie, if the breeding is carried out on a large scale.

4. Climate Change

Climate change along with global warming resulting from the effects of the green house gases has caused an unusual climatic change which now affects the entire biodiversity. It has been proven that climatic change has put the walrus population on a thin ice. The world at large needs to source for an alternative source of fuel that emits little or no harmful gas into the atmosphere.

5. Education

Education is a mighty weapon thats combats issues right from the cognitive out to it's implementation. More Educative platforms like the SWIFT Biodiversity education project needs to be set up to educate individuals, organization and groups on how to promote the continued conservation of the Biodiversity which is seeing a dowtrend in the population of a good number of it's animals and plants.

What is the difference between the Crocodile, Alligator and Gharial?

Crocodile are reptiles endemic to the tropics of Australia, America, Africa and Asia.
Photo Credit: smrtenglish.com
The word “crocodile” is sometimes used to include the extent family of the order crocodilian, which includes the gharial, the false gharia, the alligator and caimans.  Although, morphological, they all look quite alike but with clear distinctive features, they belong to separate subfamily. The most obvious external differences between crocodile alligator are visible in the head, with crocodiles having narrower and longer heads, with a more V-shaped than a U-shaped snout compared to alligators and caimans. Another obvious trait is that the upper and lower jaws of the crocodiles are the same width, and the teeth in the lower jaw fall along the edge or outside the upper jaw when the mouth is closed; therefore, all teeth are visible, unlike an alligator, which possesses in the upper jaw small depressions into which the lower teeth fit. Today will be about the subfamily of the true crocodile or the crocodylinae.

Crocodile are reptiles endemic to the tropics of Australia, America, Africa and Asia.
Photo Credit: livescience.com

Crocodile are endemic to the tropics of Australia; crocodile australia, America; crocodile america, Africa; crocodile africa and Asia; Crocodile asia. They have been known to live in fresh waters, saltwater and brackish water. Crocodiles are Carnivorous animals feeding mostly on vertebrate preys  like mammals, fish, birds and reptile.  

Crocodile are reptiles endemic to the tropics of Australia, America, Africa and Asia.
Photo Credit: Oceana.org

Crocodile are known for their enormous size; a larger species can be over 17 ft long and weigh over 900 kg. The largest crocodile ever held in captivity in the world is an estuarine–Siamese hybrid named "Yai", this animal measures 20 ft in length and weighs 1,114 kg. The longest crocodile ever captured alive is "Lolong", which was measured to be 20.2 ft and weighed at 1,075 kg by a National Geographic team in Agusan del Sur Province, Philippines.

Crocodile are reptiles endemic to the tropics of Australia, America, Africa and Asia.
Photo Credit: factslegend.org
Crocodile lay eggs in nest or mould made in sand. Mating usually takes place in the water.  Crocodile embryos do not have sex chromosomes, and unlike humans, sex is not determined genetically. Sex is determined by temperature, where at 30 °C or less most hatchlings are females and at 31 °C, offspring are of both sexes. A temperature of 32 to 33 °C gives mostly males whereas above 33 °C in some species continues to give males, but in other species resulting in females, which are sometimes called high-temperature females. Temperature also affects growth and survival rate of the young, which may explain the sexual dimorphism in crocodiles. The average incubation period is around 80 days, and also is dependent on temperature and species that usually ranges from 65 to 95 days.



Research Shows Frog and Toad Populations Declining at an Alarming Rate

Research Shows Frog and Toad Populations Declining at an Alarming Rate
Photo Credit: Guardian.ng

Recent studies have shown that the number of toads and frogs across the country have been in decline at an alarming rate. The RSPB’s annual Big Garden Birdwatch, which also lets participants submit sightings of non-bird garden visitors has shown that since 2014 toad sightings have dropped 17% and frog sightings by a third. This decline has been reflected in other surveys, with data from Froglife’s ‘Toads on Roads’ scheme finding that toad sightings specifically have dropped by two-thirds over the past thirty years. It is worth remembering that this data primarily concerns sightings of frogs and roads in urbanized areas; experts warn that in the countryside numbers could potentially have decreased in the hundreds of thousands.

Research Shows Frog and Toad Populations Declining at an Alarming Rate
Photo Credit: thehsi.org

According to the ‘Toads on Roads’ data, areas in the South-East of England have seen the largest and most consistent decline; whilst numbers in Wales, South-West and West England have declined they have stayed at a consistent level for the past ten years. However, it is not just this country where we are seeing a rapid decline of both frogs and toads; Switzerland and the USA have also reported a decrease in population numbers. The team’s results, published in the open-access journal PLOS ONE can be found here: http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161943



The evidence is undeniable, but what are the causes and what can be done to prevent this decline any further? Considering that toads in particular are usually very adaptive this continuous decline has experts worried. Unfortunately there is no clear evidence which allows for the direct identification of any specific issue or element which may be contributing to this decline. Among those that have been suggested, urbanization, loss of ponds and even changes to farming practices could be aggravating matters. Climate change is also believed to be having an impact as warmer winters have a negative impact on hibernating toads. Disease could also play a factor; around 2010 an outbreak of the Ranavirus disease caused large numbers of frogs to die across the country.
Research Shows Frog and Toad Populations Declining at an Alarming Rate
Photo Credit: livescience.com

The RSPB are encouraging people to install ponds in their gardens to help try and combat this decline and ensure that frogs and toads have access to environments that support their way of life.  Whilst for a lot of people a garden is a luxury, let alone a garden big enough to support a pond or the money to build and maintain a pond, even just a washing up bowl of water in the garden will do. As long as there is some sort of access for the creatures (a ‘platform’ of sorts – although it is recommended to try and avoid stone, as this can get extremely hot in high temperatures) then it could make a difference. If you can place it by long grass, a pile of logs or even an upside down plant pot then this could additionally serve as a place for toads to hibernate during the winter, and provide additional shade in the summer.

Frogs and toads eat insects, spiders, and other garden pests and are an important part of our local ecosystem. Whilst conservation efforts have in the past been more commonly focused on rare animals, the declines seen in many species that were once considered abundant and ‘safe’ – frogs and toads being such examples – have meant that researchers are now paying more attention to more traditional British wildlife. Long term plans to monitor their numbers as well as research into the causes of these declines and possible solutions are gaining more traction in the hope that action can be taken before it’s too late.


Article First Published in wildlifearticles.co.uk by Jessica Howard

Rhinoceros: The Endangered Species

The worlds last male white rhino is dead
Photo Credit: time.com


With a small brain that weighs 400-600kg, unusual for animals their size, the mammals are members of the family of the rhinoceros with thick protective skin made from collagen with one or two horns weighing a tone in weight. Rhinoceros is a name used for any of the five species (usually abbreviated as Rhino), two of which are native to Africa and three to southern Asia.

Rhinoceros are herbivorous; they generally eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter when necessary, although the two African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their lips to pluck food.

Hunting and poaching activities has altered the natural distribution of the rhino population. The horns of rhino are bought in the black market. By weight, rhino horns cost as much as gold on the black market. People grind up the horns and consume them, believing the dust has therapeutic properties. East Asia is the largest market for rhino horns. The IUCN Red List identifies the Black, Javan, and Sumatran rhinoceros as critically endangered.

Species


The world mourned over the death of the last male rhino in the world in the Ol Pajeta Conservation in Kenya
Photo Credit: flickr.com

There are two subspecies of white rhinoceros: the southern white rhinoceros and the northern white rhinoceros.  The white rhino has an immense body and large head, a short neck and broad chest. Females weigh 1,600 kg and males 2,400 kg. The world mourned over the death of the last male rhino in the world in the Ol Pajeta Conservation in Kenya


There are only four species of the black Rhinoceros
Photo Credit: streamafrica.com

There are four subspecies of black rhino: South-central, the most numerous, which once ranged from central Tanzania south through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique to northern and eastern South Africa; South-western which are better adapted to the arid and semi-arid savannas of Namibia, southern Angola, western Botswana and western South Africa; East African, primarily in Tanzania; and West African which was declared extinct in November 2011.



Indian rhinoceros animal once inhabited many areas ranging from Pakistan to Myanmar and maybe even parts of China
Photo Credit: saveus.in

Indian rhinos once inhabited many areas ranging from Pakistan to Myanmar and maybe even parts of China. However, because of human influence, they now only exist in several protected areas of India and Nepal, with a few pairs in Lal Suhanra National Park in Pakistan


The Javan rhinoceros is one of the most endangered large mammals in the world
Photo Credit: Animalsake.com

The Javan rhinoceros is one of the most endangered large mammals in the world. According to 2015 estimates, only about 60 remain, in Java, Indonesia, all in the wild.


The endangered Sumatran rhinoceros is the smallest extant species of this family
Photo Credit: Rhinos.org

The Sumatran rhinoceros is the smallest extant rhinoceros species, as well as the one with the most hair. It can be found at very high altitudes in Borneo and Sumatra. Due to habitat loss and poaching, their numbers have declined and it has become the most threatened rhinoceros.


Climate change puts the Pacific Walrus population on thin ice

Climate change puts the Pacific Walrus population on thin ice
Photo Credit: wwf.panda.org


Every autumn for about the last decade, the residents of Enurmino—a tiny, Russian village located along the Chukchi Sea—have witnessed a strange sight. Tens of thousands of Pacific walruses have exited the chilly ocean waters and assembled en masse along the shoreline.

This phenomenon, known as a “haulout,” occurs when large hordes of mostly females and calves pull themselves onto the beach to rest. The walruses climb on to shore because of declining sea ice cover.

“Typically, walruses spend most of their time at sea hauled out on ice floes as they forage for food on the ocean floor” explains WWF’s Nikhil Advani, “but as sea ice declines, they’re increasingly hauling out on land instead.”

Throughout the Arctic, sea ice is forming later in the season and disappearing earlier, limiting the amount of space available for walruses to congregate. Floating summer sea ice is also receding further north to where the water is too deep for the animals to dive and feed. This forces them to desert the ice and seek refuge ashore. Once on land, the walruses must travel much longer distances—up to 250 miles round trip—to reach their food supply.

Climate change puts the Pacific Walrus population on thin ice
Photo Credit: mmc.gov

Researchers first observed large haulouts off Alaska’s Point Lay in 2007, when summer Arctic sea ice reached its second-lowest minimum extent in recorded history. As the extent of summer sea ice has continued to decline in Arctic waters, the number of walruses coming ashore has grown considerably.

In 2014, around 35,000 walruses hauled out along a small stretch of beach in Point Lay.

These massive haulouts can be incredibly dangerous for walruses. The crowded animals are easily spooked; any sound or scent—an airplane flying by, a human, or a whiff of a predator—can cause a deadly stampede. In their rush to the ocean, the heavy walruses—which can weigh up to 1.5 tons—can trample other walruses, especially young calves, which are susceptible to injuries and death. Last year, disturbances to a haulout near Cape Schmidt, Russia caused more than 500 deaths.


Climate change puts the Pacific Walrus population on thin ice
Photo Credit: photoartinc.com

In addition to posing risks for individual animals, these mass aggregations are a troubling sign that Pacific walruses and other species are under serious threat from climate change-driven habitat loss. “Some projections suggest that the Arctic could be ice-free in the summers as early as 2040,” says Advani. “That means sea ice-dependent species like walruses and polar bears will be spending more time on land, which could decrease access to their prey base and increase human-wildlife conflict.”

Pacific walrus numbers reached record-low numbers in the early 1960s, but rebounded by the 1980s following significant conservation efforts. Unfortunately, the Pacific walrus population is once again in decline—with just 129,000 animals left.



Marine Animals Tanked in Captivity in Aquariums

Should marine animals be kept in aquariums
Photo Credit: dreamaquarium.com

Aquariums are such a beauty to behold with marine lives swimming within a restricted and confined space, colorful and radiant. The British and Irish association of zoos and aquariums holds that 25 million people visit the aquariums and zoos every year, and that is about a third of the population of the United Kingdom, now you can imagine how much people love to see marine animals swim and display with their beautiful colors and trilling motor moves.

Animals in aquarium
Photo Credit: bpaquarium.com

Individuals, organizations and businesses now put up aquariums in their houses and office spaces, just to enhance the aesthetic of their apartment oblivious of the welfare and condition of the animals. Marine lives are definitely a beauty to behold especially when you are viewing them from a very close range in captivity.

Just like the zoo and circuses, the effect of captivity is not just physical but psychological. Some orcas have destroyed their  teeth by chewing on metal cage bars and all captive adult male orcas have collapsed dorsal fins, a condition that rarely occurs in wild orcas, and this case of the orcas is just one amongst many too numerous to mention.

The animal right activists are strongly pushing-on to free animals that have been tanked in captivity. There have always been pros and cons to circumstances as this, just like in the case of the zoo and circus in my previous articles but you will find in most cases that the merit is much bigger than the demerits.
Should marine animals be kept in aquariums
Photo Credit: aquariumfiltersetup.com
 Animals in an aquarium are usually confined in small tanks and they can get bored and frustrated. In an effort to provide more natural environments for the animals, different species are often kept together, which lead to predatory animals attacking or eating their tank mates. Tanks are also stocked either with captured animals or animals bred in captivity. Capturing animals in the wild is stressful, injurious and sometimes fatal; breeding in captivity is also a problem because those animals will live their entire lives in a tiny tank instead of a vast ocean. Some individuals believe that animals can be better studied for scientific purposes but that does not justify the suffering and right infringement of the animals living in tanks.
 Should marine animals be kept in aquariums?
It is undeniably true that we need to connect with nature; marine and all its components, but should we do that by keeping them in captivity?


Top Five Endangered Animals of Miwildlife


Top 5 endangered animals
Photo Credit: gizmodo.com

"Orangutan" Man of the forest, as translated in Malay is Critically endangered and it is found in Borneo, Sumantra and Tapanuli, with population 104,700, 13,846, 800 respectively. Sumantra and Borneo were the only known spots where orangutans have been untill 2017 when 800 Orangutans were found in Tapanuli



Top 5 endangered animals
Photo Credit: Popsci.com

The Tasmanian devil became the largest carnivorous marsupial in the world following the extinction of the thylacine in 1936..Experts estimate that the devil has suffered a more than 80% decline in its population since the mid-1990s and that only around 10,000–15,000 remain in the wild as of 2008, recent research has proven that the population is still declining as a result of the devil facial tumor disease.



Top 5 endangered animals
Photo Credit: wwf.org

At the turn of the 20th century, there were about 100,000 Asian elephant but today the population ranges from 35,000 to 40,000, habitat loss has been one of the major factor facing  Elephants, as well as Poaching activities.




Top 5 endangered animals
Photo Credit: theverge.com


Since it was discovered in 1983, the Ili Pika population is thought to have declined by nearly 70 per cent. With only 1,000 left, the small mammal is now thought to be one of the world's most endangered species. The species is a native to the remote Tianshan mountain range in the Xinjiang region of northwestern China. 




Top 5 endangered animals
Photo Credit: Savenaturesavehuman.blogspot.com

No accurate Survey has been made on the Saola.  Accurate population estimates would be exceedingly difficult to obtain even if the species were not rare, due to its reported secretive behavior, the difficulty of making direct observations in dense, rugged and remote forest habitat, and the fact that signs of the species cannot at present be unequivocally distinguished from other ungulates of similar size in its range .The IUCN estimates the total Saola population to be between 70 and 750.




Should Animals Perform in the Circus?

animals in the circus are maltreated
Photo Credit: Peta.org

Entertainment took a different turn when Philip Astley, the father of modern circus, opened the first circus ever in London, in 1968, where he performed the trick riding. He rode in a circle rather than a straight line and this along with many other formats brought up the name “CIRCUS”. 


Animals performing in the circus
Photo Credit: Cairoscene.com

A circus is a band of entertainers who perform activities that incites smiles, laughter, happiness, joy, and fulfillment just like any other entertainment outfit.  Shows in the circus usually includes clowns, tightrope walkers, dancers, magicians, hoopers, jugglers, trapeze act , unicyclist and animals.

Today, a lot of circuses around the world keeps wild animals (trained) in captivity for entertainment in the circus, performing various animal shows and stunts. Animals used in the circus include the giraffe, lion, elephant, tiger, leopard, cheetah, monkey, rabbit e.t.c

Animal activists around the world has pushed against keeping animals in the circus, giving a whole lot of cogent reason for this fight and this is sure bad for business, for circus owners. The Mexican congress banned the use of animals in circuses in 2014, the UK government is now set to ban the use of animals in circus in 2020 and theunited states of America was not left out.

It is believed that Animals in the circus, as well as animals in captivity are being physically abused, mistreated and they go through an unimaginable process and pains just to perform as expected in a circus. Some animal trainers even go as far as using whips for the animals, electric shockers and bull hooks, so they will act accordingly.  According to PETA an animal right group, during an undercover investigation of Carson & Barnes Circus, video footage was captured showing animal care director Tim Frisco training endangered Asian elephants with electrical shock prods and instructing other trainers to “beat the elephants with a bull hook as hard as they can and sink the sharp metal hook into the elephant's flesh and twist it until they scream in pain”.  These animals are so cruelly treated that even the lions, tigers and leopard and elephants do not get as much outside exposure as they are supposed in their natural habitat because they are always locked in cages and in shackles.
Should animals be kept in the circus?
An elephant being shocked with electric, Phot Credit: Peta2.com


These then brings us to the big question “Should these animals be kept in the circus at the mercies of their cruel trainers, or taken to the zoo or perhaps sent to the wild and forest reserve”?

How the Giant Panda Almost Got Extinct

china and the giant panda extinction saved
Photo Credit: worldwildlife.org

The beautiful big black and white colored giant panda with thick hair that shields it from cold is one of the world’s most beloved and famous animal, as it has featured, in movies, books and cartoons especially the comic martial “Konfu Panda” cartoon movie but yet it has suffered a great deal of misdeed from so many factors, putting it in an endangered spot in 1990 but that changed in 2006, drawing a new status of the IUCN as a “Vulnerable specie”.  Now, what factors could have led the pandas to the endangered list, and how were they able to bounce out of it to the vulnerability state in the IUCN watch book?  But Let’s talk about the Famous giant panda a bit and why it is so famous.
 
saved from extinction by the Chinese government
Photo Credit: time.com

The Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is native to mountain forest of southwest china. With a distinctive black and white coloring, their eyes, ears, muzzles, shoulders
and leg are black while every other part of their body is white. Although they belong to the order carnivore, their main diet which makes up 99% of their feeding culture is bamboo. Bamboo is not too rich in nutrient and that’s why the giant panda consumes 20-40 bamboos a day, they can as well feed on fish, egg and rodent but this barely makes 1% of their diet. In captivity, they are compelled to feed on whatever they are fed.
They have a protruding wrist bone, a pseudo thumb, an adaptive feature that helps them grab bamboo while they munch on it. Panders reach sexual maturity between 4-8 years and may reproduce until the age of 20 years. Gestation period is usually from 95 to 160 days.
 
china and the giant panda endangered extinction saved
Photo Credit: csmonitor.com

Now, let’s see what led the giant panda to the endangered list in the first place

Deforestation: this is the major cause of reduction in the population of the giant panda. Humanactivities in the 80s altered their natural habitat, destroying the forest and bamboos in a bid to build more houses and develop lands, forcing the giant panda to starvation and death.

Reproduction: A mother bear can give birth to 3 cubs but sadly, she will give attention to just one forcing the other two to malnutrition and possible death, this is because their basic bamboo diet has not enough nutrient to support a lactating mother and her 3 cubs.

Poaching: Poaching has always been a major problem in the animal kingdom. Illegal hunting of the giant panda for their fur, bones, skins has contributed effectively in reducing their population.

Adaptation: some animals adapt perfectly well outside their habitat, like the raccoon. Sad enough, the giant panda cannot adapt very well outside its natural habitat even when put in captivity.

So how where they able to bounce out of the danger zone?

Panda Population increased by Chinese government conservation program
Photo Credit: time.com
Since 1940, TheChinese has put efforts to conserve the habitat of the giant pandas. Today there are more than 67 panda reserves in the country breeding them in captivity.

The census taken in 2014 has indicated a 17% increase in population since 2003. Now the total number of pandas found in the wild has now reach 1864 individuals. Furthermore, reforestation has increased the occupied habitat by 11.8% and useable habitat by 6.3%.

The Chinese government has put up more conservation programmes to ensure push up in the panda population and some other organizations like the world wild life are still putting efforts together to ensure that the Giant panda doesn’t rest on the vulnerability status but  totally safe from extinction.